Wildlife Diseases

WDC is endeavoring to provide the best information on zoonotic disease available. So be sure to check back with us as this and other pages will continue to grow in depth and breadth. We are grateful to Dr. Richard A. French DVM. for the Northeastern Research Center for Wildlife Diseases of the Univ. of Connecticut for permission in using information contained in his publication "Wildife and Diseases: Biohazards Associated with Exposure to Animals". Published in 1997. He is presently located at the Dept. of Pathobiology U-89 61 N. Eagleville Rd. Storrs, CT 06269-3089. For more information on specific diseases click on the hyperlinks listed below.

While we try to be accurate in the information contained on this site, we cannot guarantee that all the information is perfectly accurate as to source or transmission. Our site is meant for information awareness purposes. We strongly suggest that specific questions pertaining to your situation be discussed between your doctor and state health officials. I have included a list of those resources at the bottom of the page. We also welcome any suggestions for additions.

#General Precautions for Diseased Animal Contact and High Risk Areas

#Diseases of Wild Animals that are Transmissible to Man

Carcass Disposal Options

General Precautions

• Diseased wild animals often show changes in behavior. They sometimes appear docile or react unusually to humans. Rabid wild and domestic dogs can react aggressively. Use all available precautions with animals that appear sick, are dying or exhibiting unusual behavior. Note animals found outside their normal habitat or conditions as these are often the only sign of disease. For example, note when normally nocturnal animals are seen during the day or when domestic free-ranging pets behave unusually.

• Maintain a record (daily log) of all animal contact and disposition whether or not disease is indicated.

General Precautions for Diseased Animal Contact and High Risk Areas

General Precautions for Diseased Animal Contact

1. Wear protective clothing. Items like rubber or plastic gloves, boots or aprons can lessen the risk of exposure for diseases transmitted by blood, feces or saliva.

2. Clean animal holding and handling areas. Scrub tools, tables, reusable gloves and equipment with water and soap or detergent. Rinse the area with a disinfectant that contains bleach.

3. Don't eat or drink when handling high risk animals or materials. Wash hands thoroughly after handling.

4. Dispose of animals properly. Eliminate sources of disease by incineration or deep burial.

5. Notify your physician if you are in a high risk profession for wildlife disease. As a precaution, your doctor may recommend that a blood sample be drawn and frozen to provide baseline information. Information you provide will enable your doctor to be more alert to signs and symptoms of rarely occurring diseases.

6. Educate yourself. Know the clinical signs/symptoms and distributions of wildlife-transmitted diseases. Not all diseases of wildlife are transmissible to humans.

General Precautions for High Risk Areas

1 . Apply mosquito or tick repellents. Be aware that some repellents are harmful to the skin.

2. Avoid tick-infested areas or high activity periods of mosquitoes. Ticks are generally most numerous late spring to early summer. Mosquitoes are most active during summer, early evening hours.

3. Wear protective clothing and equipment. For the tick-bome Lyme disease, wear light-colored clothing and tape pants cuffs inside of socks or high boot tops when in high risk areas. Equipment guards (safety glasses, face shield, and masks) against air-borne transfer of microorganisms that can cause hantavirus and histoplasmosis. (Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulates job-related activities regarding risk to wildlife-transmitted diseases and may require certain clothes or equipment.)

4. Recognize early symptoms. Alert your physician of your possible exposure. Many zoonoses are rare enough that medical professionals sometimes overlook them.

5. Reduce host populations. Become involved in community or area-wide efforts to control mosquitoes, fleas, ticks, rats or mice. Implement control methods on your property.

6. Vaccinations. Vaccinate domestic animals against wildlife-transmitted diseases like rabies and Lyme disease. Contact your physician for human vaccination recommendations.

Vaccinations

Rabies: available to high risk individuals. Should be discussed with your physician. Tetanus: maintain a current tetanus booster status

U of CT; Northeastern Research Center for Wildlife Diseases; December 1997 5

 

Diseases of Wild Animals that are Transmissable to Man

(ANTHROPO-ZOONOSES) IN NORTHEASTERN U.S.A.:

TRANSMISSION MODE

CONTACT TRANSMISSION

DERMATOMYCOSES
DERMATOPHILOSIS
SCHISTOSOMIASIS
TULAREMIA
RABIES
LYMPHOCYTIC CHORIOMENINGITIS
CAT SCRATCH DISEASE
LEPTOSPIROSIS
SCABIES
ANTHRAX
ERYSIPELAS
PASTERURELLOSIS
STAPHYLOCOCCOSIS

ARTHROPOD TRANSMISSION

MOSQUITO ENCEPHALITIS
West Nile Encephalitis
                        DIROFILARIASIS

TICK LYME BORRELIOSIS (new test for lyme disease)

Lyme Disease


                ROCKY MT.SPOT.FEVER
                BABESIOSIS (now found in Mass.)
                 EHRLICHIOSIS
                TULAREMIA
NEW MYSTERY TICK DISEASE

 

FLEA VERSINIOSIS (Y. pestis)
                MURINE TYPHUS
                DIPYLIDIASIS

LOUSE - WILD TYPHUS SYLVATIC EPIDEMIC TYPHUS

ALIMENTARY TRANSMISSION

FECAL CONTAMINATION
Bird Droppings

Bayliscaris Procyonis (raccoon roundworm)
SALMONELLOSIS
GIARDIASIS
CRYTOSPORIDIOSIS
TOXOPLASMOSIS
TOXOCARIASIS
ECHINOCOCCOSIS
HEPATIC-CAPILLARIASIS
CAMPYLOBACTERIOSIS
SHIGELLOSIS
YERSINOSIS

Hanta Virus

SAPROZOONOSES

ERYSIPELAS CRYPTOCOCCOSIS
ANTHRAX CANDIDIASIS
BOTULISM HISTOPLASMOSIS
TETANUS MADUROMYCOSIS
LISTERIOSIS ZYGOMYCOSIS
SPOROTRICHOSIS
Protothecosis A fungus that can infect humans. The question is can humans contract this disease from animals that are infected?
ASPERGILLOSIS

 

RESPIRATORY TRANSMISSION

CHLAMYDIOSIS

ASPERGILLOSIS

Diseases unclear whether they are transmittable to Humans

Chronic Wasting Disease

U of CT; Northeastern Research Center for Wildlife Diseases; December 1997

Information listed on this page is the property of Dr. Richard Frech and is presented here with his permission.

Diseases Transmittable from Animal to Animal

Name Source Target
Neospora caninum: causes abortions in cattle Single cell parasite contained in dog feces. Cattle that eat feed infected with dog feces. (Reflections, vol.9. No.1)

Pox: a disease characterized by brown crusty tumors that typically afflict the eyes but can be found over their whole body. West Palm Beach Fl. recently had an outbreak there 7/99. Scientists say the disease is specific to squirrels and is transmitted by mosquitos. The tumors usually cause the squirrel to be blind and thus die a rather cruel death. There is no known cure. (see article "Tumors Plague Squirrels in Florida" West Palm Beach, Fla, AP-NY-06-19-99 1742EDT)

 

For further zoonotic info

Contact the Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study, College of
Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602;
Phone (706)542-1741.

Tufts Veterinary School

National Wildlife Health Center

Poisoning

"Poison on the Farm" by Jon Geller DVM in Mother Earth News August/Sept 1999 pp. 66-68 Article covers a variety of poisonings and their symptoms.

Duck Diseases

Bird Disease Manual - Click "Buy from amazon.com" to order.

 

Questions or Comment? Click here
* All correspondence becomes property of WDC.

 

Disclaimer: WDC seeks to provide accurate, effective and responsible information on resolving human/wildlife conflicts. We welcome suggestions, criticisms to help us achieve this goal. The information provided is for informational purposes only and users of the information use it at their own risk. The reader must consult state/federal officials to determine the legality of any technique in the reader's locale. Some techniques are dangerous to the user and to others. WDC encourages readers to obtain appropriate training (see our informational literature at our Store ), and understand that proper animal damage control involves patience, understanding that not every technique/method works for every situation or even 100% of the time. Your use of this information is governed by this understanding. We welcome potential users of the information and photos to simply ask for permission via e-mail. Finally, WDC welcomes e-mail but understand that all e-mails become property of Wildlife Damage Control.